Best Acoustic Guitars of 2020 – Complete Review

Most of us have heard about the different types of guitars – classical, acoustic, electric, and even acoustic-electric. You may be wondering what the main differences between them are and which one is the most versatile. 

Let's start by discussing what an acoustic guitar is and why so many musicians around the world have fallen in love with this particular type of instrument.

Then, we will present you with the best acoustic guitars on the market!

Comparison Chart of the Best Acoustic Guitars


Martin Road Series Dreadnought Acoustic-Electric Guitar

  • Best acoustic guitar overall
  • Highly playable due to ergonomic neck shape
  • Premium quality components at an affordable price
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Yamaha FG800

  • Featherweight and highly playable
  • Adjustable truss rod and diecast tuners
  • Affordable, beginner-friendly acoustic guitar
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Yamaha APX600 BL

  • Solid, easy-to-play acoustic guitar
  • Best acoustic guitar for the money
  • Added bottom end with well-rounded tones
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Taylor Guitars GS Mini

  • Highly portable and convenient
  • Best Acoustic Guitar Under $500
  • Full-bodied tones with robust sounds
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Martin Custom D Dreadnought Acoustic Guitar

  • High punch and volume
  • Best Acoustic Guitar Under $1000
  • Expressive highs and mids, loud bottom end
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Fender CD-60S

  • Classic design with 14 frets
  • Best Beginner Acoustic Guitar
  • Comes with an all-inclusive bundle
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Blueridge BR-163CE

  • Best Intermediate Acoustic Guitar
  • Classic design resembling beauties from the ‘30s
  • Crystal clear articulation with crisp tones and deep bass
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Taylor 224CE-K DLX Koa

  • Ideal for finger stylists
  • Best Acoustic Electric Guitar
  • Stunning color with bright sounds and a vintage feel
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Yamaha FGX820C

  • Highly affordable acoustic-electric guitar
  • Best Acoustic Electric Guitar Under $500
  • Good quality electronics with a precision chromatic tuner
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Gretsch G9200 Roundneck Boxcar

  • Best Blues Acoustic Guitar
  • Ideal for blues-based genres
  • Round neck with mahogany build
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What is an Acoustic Guitar?

An acoustic guitar is an instrument that produces sounds simply through the vibration of its strings. When you strum its strings, they produce sound waves that resonate through its body and amplify the sound you hear. 

The sound is typically made from the soundbox (the body) of the guitar and the side is basically a soundboard that amplifies the vibration sound the strings produce. They are different from classical guitars in many aspects. The easiest difference to spot is the scratchplate, which a piece of plastic that will protect the guitar’s body when you play it. 

How Does an Acoustic Guitar Work?

An acoustic guitar can produce sounds whether you pluck each string with your fingertip or with a pick. Plucking the strings will make them vibrate and reach the pitch that is determined by factors such as tension, mass, and length. Touching the guitar’s string will make the soundboard (body of the guitar) and the air around the soundbox start vibrating. 

An acoustic guitar has a truss rod that protects the neck of the guitar from the amount of pressure the steel strings produce. They are often smaller and easier to play than classical guitars and are the preferred guitar for beginners and children. 

Are All Acoustic Guitars the Same?

Not all acoustic guitars are the same. They have different shapes and sizes, such as dreadnought, parlor (mini-sized), or even jumbo sizes. They can also be made of a variety of different materials, such as Sitka spruce, cedar, mahogany, and others. This affects the tone of the guitar, as well as its versatility for different types of music genres. 

Given the long history of this popular instrument, many variations and hybrid models have been developed over the years. Thus, it can be quite troublesome to pick the best one for you. 

What to Look For in an Acoustic Guitar

There are many features which are important for a great quality acoustic guitar, such as:


The playability of your new guitar is extremely important, especially if you are a beginner. A bulky model with an impractical shape will make playing very difficult and will slowly kill your motivation to practice. Feeling comfortable while playing is ideal for more experienced players, as well. Since they're more likely to hold gigs and live performances, it is key to feel comfortable and enjoy the experience. 


The guitar’s versatility is often given by the type of sounds it produces, which most often comes down to the tonewoods. Some of them are extremely bright and crisp, while others are warm or well-balanced. If you are a starter and unsure which one is the best for you, go for a well-balanced instrument and give it a try. You’ll be pleasantly surprised!

Shape and Size

A great acoustic guitar has the perfect blend of size, shape, and playability. Dreadnought is the most common of them all, but players who want an especially loud guitar might want to go for jumbo sizes. Be aware that these are considerably bulkier and more difficult to play unless you have large hands. 

Quick Take: 
Top 3 Picks

Review of the Best Acoustic Guitars

Now that you know what makes the best acoustic guitars, let’s take a look at some of the best options on the market.


  • Made of solid mahogany
  • Can be played out of the box
  • Easy to tune, balanced tonality
  • Tuning stability and easy to tune
  • Tonal consistency and wide tonal range
  • Extremely comfortable and highly playable


  • Heavy neck
  • Average electronics
  • Difficult to change batteries (need to remove strings)

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers love that this Martin guitar is made of premium materials but comes at a highly affordable price. It produces rich, full, and expressive tones, and the volume is unexpectedly high. The combination of solid Sitka and solid mahogany for the body is truly perfect. They also state that this guitar offers unmatched clarity and precision. 

Why it Stands Out to Us

The Martin Road Series Dreadnought Guitar is one of the most affordable Martin guitars on the market. It doesn't compromise on quality, though. It has a simple, classic look due to the solid Sitka spruce top. It has a high-end feeling to it since it is made of solid wood. 

Who Will Use This Most

The ergonomic shape of the neck is slim and comfortable, which makes it ideal for beginners. It is an excellent instrument for any musician, especially if you are looking to combine the benefits of both acoustic and electric guitars. The electronics make it very versatile and it is ideal for all musicians regardless of hand size. 

Bottom Line

This exceptional guitar is a high-quality, affordable acoustic guitar. It is classic and the quality of its craftsmanship ticks all the boxes. The tonal range is wide, with a balanced blend of lows, mids, and highs. Highly playable, this is one of the best acoustic guitars for both beginners and more experienced players. 

Yamaha FG800

YAMAHA FG800 Solid Top Acoustic Guitar


  • Crisp, clear tones
  • High-quality mids and lows
  • Very strong and durable design
  • Thin neck for enhanced playability
  • Built-in diecast tuner for easy tuning


  • Quite large and bulky
  • Slight buzzing for some products
  • Strings need to be stretched before playing for the first time

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers say the best feature of this model is the design. It is not only lightweight, but its shape is what makes it stand out from the crowd. The matte finish is appealing and it has a smooth finish that narrows down when getting closer to the body. This makes it very easy for users to play individual notes.

Why it Stands Out to Us

Yamaha is well-known for its high-quality guitars. Our runner-up is constructed with solid spruce, nato for the back and sides, and rosewood for the fingerboard and the bridge. The design is unique, different, and featherweight. It also comes with diecast tuners and an adjustable truss rod.

Who Will Use This Most

This is one of the best, most affordable, beginner-friendly acoustic guitars on the market. The light body with an ergonomic design makes it ideal for practicing, as does the emphasis on the smooth matte finish and comfortable shape. Make sure you have set it up professionally and you’ll be ready to rock!

Bottom Line 

There’s plenty to love about this beginner-friendly Yamaha FG800. It is pocket-friendly but maintains the high-quality features you would expect from such a reputable company. Highly playable and light, it is all you can wish for from a budget-friendly, great performing acoustic guitar!

Best for the Money:
 Yamaha APX600 BL

Yamaha APX600 BL Thin Body Acoustic-Electric Guitar, Black


  • Highly precise, balanced tones
  • Highly comfortable and playable
  • Affordable and great value for the money
  • Cutaway design improves access to the frets
  • Neck shape ideal for beginners or small-handed musicians


  • Boomy if too much bass
  • Small size not as comfortable for players with long arms
  • Musicians with large hands will have to be very precise when playing

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers state that this Yamaha guitar is an attractive instrument, with higher playability than previous Yamaha products. All 22 frets of this guitar are easy to access because of its cutaway and the truss rod allows you to make any adjustments needed. It is definitely a great overall product that users have said is worth every cent!

Why it Stands Out to Us

The Yamaha APX600 BL has the good representation of the well-known Yamaha sound. It features rich, warm tonalities and extended ease of play. The overall design resembles a dreadnought but on a smaller and thinner scale, which enhances playability. The cutaway design offers brighter sound, but it also has a bottom end.

Who Will Use This Most

The Yamaha APX600 is a thin, slim acoustic-electric guitar. It is highly playable, which makes it ideal for beginners or players with smaller hands or shorter arms. It is also ideal for more experienced players with highly accurate finger positions. Its comfort, playability, and balanced features make it a great instrument.

Bottom Line

Overall, this Yamaha acoustic guitar is a great example of craftsmanship and high-quality components. It sounds deep and warm, which is impressive considering its cutaway. It's great for beginners or people with smaller hands, and the balanced acoustic sound makes it worth its price tag!

Best Acoustic Guitar Under $500:
Taylor Guitars GS Mini


  • Tuning stability
  • High sound quality
  • Portable size, great for traveling
  • Highly playable due to neck shape
  • Extremely lightweight and compact
  • Blend of great tones, playability, and comfort


  • Low action
  • Satin finish is easy to scratch
  • Quite simple if you want a fussy guitar

What Recent Buyers Report

Whether you want to do quick, hard strumming or you want to set an intimate atmosphere, buyers say that this guitar delivers both with high accuracy. Despite it being beginner-friendly and having a tiny-sized shape, users say it can definitely rival most full-sized instruments out there. It is a greatly improved, portable acoustic guitar.

Why it Stands Out to Us

The potent blend of high-quality tones and improved mobility makes it a serious competitor for the title of the best acoustic guitar. Despite its tiny size, the sounds are full, consistent, and highly creative. The sounds are sharp but pleasant, and it has powerful mids and treble.

Who Will Use This Most

If you are a beginner looking for ease, affordability, and simplicity, then this Taylor is the perfect match for you. You can easily avoid string buzzing with this guitar. It is also a great idea for more experienced players who want a smooth action, making it easy to slide up and down the frets.

Bottom Line 

Overall, the Taylor GS Mini is an incredibly-crafted, high-quality guitar. It is not only portable with a beautiful finish and fit, but it can deliver big sounds that challenge even full-sized guitars. The GS Mini is exactly what you need if you want playability, great price, and high-quality, powerful tones.

Best Acoustic Guitar Under $1000:
 Martin Custom D Dreadnought Acoustic Guitar


  • Highly playable and portable
  • Great sustain with a dynamic response
  • Dovetail neck joint ensures great resonances
  • Enhanced sustain due to lack of dovetail bolts
  • Highly versatile, suitable for any playing style and music genre
  • Tight fit ensures the perfect transference of the tone and sustain


  • Design might be too simplistic for some
  • Narrow neck might make chords easy to miss 
  • Becomes a bit trebly with phosphor bronze strings

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers mention that it has a specific sound with full brightness and loads of bottom end, which make it ideal for playing acoustic rhythm. Additionally, it retains all of the highs, which makes it one of the most balanced, versatile guitars on the market - and a favorite amongst users.

Why it Stands Out to Us

You can never go wrong when you purchase a Martin guitar. This instrument is a high-quality acoustic guitar that stands out due to its versatility. It is a combination of a mahogany body with a Sitka spruce, which gives fullness and expression to the highs and mids, but also adds some real punch to the bottom ends. The neck is conveniently shaped to enhance playability.

Who Will Use This Most

This Martin Custom D Classic Mahogany is extremely versatile. It can handle any playing style. From soft fingerplay to hard strumming, this guitar can outperform most other instruments. Additionally, you can play rock, bluegrass, and everything in between with great sustain and high-quality performances each time.

Bottom Line 

Overall, this Martin guitar is excellent for any guitarist. It is high-quality and has a classic but gorgeous finish. All it takes is to strum one chord, and you will see for yourself! It is a great, versatile guitar, so get ready to impress and be impressed by this amazing craftsmanship!

Best Beginner Acoustic Guitar:
Fender CD-60S

Fender CD-60S Right Handed Acoustic Guitar - Dreadnaught Body - Natural


  • Highly affordable
  • Includes a beginner-friendly bundle
  • Highly playable, ideal for beginners
  • Great sound quality and precise tones
  • Versatile, suitable for any playing style or music genre
  • Affordable, can be adapted for left-handed players


  • Not great for specialization in a style
  • Slight buzz when playing the power chords
  • Experienced players might not find it suitable

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers report that this guitar is the ideal bundle for any starter. They say that it looks beautiful, and the sounds far outweigh its price tag. The lows, mids, and highs are rich, full, and truly balanced, with reasonable versatility for many music genres. It is highly playable and comfortable, with many buyers saying they can go on for hours!

Why it Stands Out to Us

The Fender CD-60S is a high-quality instrument with a strong, bright, and dynamic range. It responds well to any playing style and music genre, and it has an easy-to-play neck and highly resonant back and sides made of mahogany. Additionally, the bundle includes beginner accessories, such as picks, a strap, and additional strings.

Who Will Use This Most

This guitar bundle is ideal for any starter. It is well-built and sturdy, and it includes all the necessary accessories to get you started. It is versatile enough to match any music genre and playing style. Also, the comfortable neck shape will let you practice for many hours without any pain.

Bottom Line  

Overall, this guitar is a real bargain. If you are a beginner or a casual player, it can be the best option you have. It is not only extremely well-made with great tonality, but you definitely cannot find another one that will beat this price. That’s a promise!

Best Intermediate Acoustic Guitar:
Blueridge BR-163CE

Blueridge Guitars Electro 6 String Acoustic-Electric Guitar, Right Handed, 000-size Sitka (BR-163CE)


  • Well-balanced, loud sounds
  • Thin body with enhanced playability
  • Comes with a sturdy, padded gig bag
  • Highly versatile, ideal for any musical style
  • Quality components combining classical design with modern features
  • String spacing is ideal for finger pickers


  • Might be a bit too ornate
  • Pickguard color might not be enjoyed by some

What Recent Buyers Report

Users have said that this guitar delivers exquisite, unexpectedly balanced sounds, considering the thin size of the body. Buyers say the action is top-quality and it has no string buzz. Plus, it is playable right out of the box. Players state that it is definitely a great instrument that is ready to perform live in front of their audience or help them practice at home!

Why it Stands Out to Us

This Blueridge is the perfect combination of a thin, highly playable body and balanced tonality. The slim neck enhances playability and easy action, and it also helps your instrument stay tuned for longer. The design resembles classical guitars of the 1930s, and the crisp tones are to die for!

Who Will Use This Most

This instrument is easy to play and versatile, which makes it ideal for both beginners and more experienced players. If you enjoy finger picking, you will find this guitar well-designed and ready to fulfill your needs due to the generous spacing of the strings. 

Bottom Line 

Overall, this Blueridge Br-163CE is a historic series, high-quality guitar. It has flawless performance with a highly ergonomic design. The slim neck favors long hours of practice. It also features long-lasting stability, which is a prerequisite for an impressive gig. It comes with its own specially designed deluxe gig bag, as well, which makes the price tag a real bargain!

Best Acoustic Electric Guitar:
Taylor 224CE-K DLX Koa

Taylor Guitars 224ce-K DLX Koa Deluxe Grand Auditorium Acoustic-Electric Guitar


  • Becomes better with age
  • Naturally amplified sounds
  • Very crisp and bright sounds
  • Tone consistency and stability
  • Stunning guitar with a Koa build
  • Comes with a plush case and light gauge strings


  • Might be too bright for some players

What Recent Buyers Report

The first feature of this guitar that buyers love once they play are the crisp, bright sounds. It is great for some players, but some might not enjoy that as much. However, the best part is that, as they played it more and more, the tones become richer and warmer, and most buyers grew to love it.

Why it Stands Out to Us

If you are looking for a higher-end, special instrument, this Koa-made guitar cannot be overlooked. It is a true highlight of the Taylor series, with a gorgeous, vintage Koa build and high-quality, eco-friendly components. It has beautiful colors, bright and crisp sounds, and becomes better with time!

Who Will Use This Most

This guitar is not your average guitar. It is ideal for bold, adventurous players with a passion for vintage, high-quality instruments and crisp, bright sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a more experienced player, this guitar will definitely have something to offer you.

Bottom Line 

Overall, this guitar from Taylor is our best recommendation for an acoustic-electric guitar. It is vintage, crisp, bright, and the ideal companion for any guitar player. The quality and craftsmanship are exquisite, and the innovative use of Koa for its build makes it stand out among its competitors.

Best Acoustic Electric Guitar Under $500:
  Yamaha FGX820C 

Yamaha FGX820C Solid Top Cutaway Acoustic-Electric Guitar, Natural


  • Great classic design
  • High-quality sounds
  • Reasonable tuning stability
  • Ready to play out of the box
  • Diecast tuners and adjustable truss rod
  • Ideal for beginners and more experienced players


  • Poor quality control
  • Strings are not the best quality
  • Might be too small for people with large hands

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers state that this guitar features beautiful colors and lovely sounds! The lows, mids, and highs are well-balanced, which makes this guitar highly versatile and suitable for many music genres. What is great, despite its low budget, is that it comes ready to play out of the box! According to most users, it is definitely worth every cent and much more.

Why it Stands Out to Us

This convenient Yamaha stands out due to the high quality of its components. It comes ready to be played straight out of the box. It has no fret buzz and the neck and frets are the perfect match for players with small hands. It is the perfect combination of pleasant design, playability, and balanced tones.

Who Will Use This Most

It is highly convenient and playable, thus it is perfect for most, if not all, beginners. The sounds far outweigh the price tag. If you want a small-sized, playable guitar to keep you motivated, you definitely need to check this one out. It is a solid, durable, highly affordable guitar.

Bottom Line

Overall, this Yamaha is worth every cent. The tones are deep and rich and it is extremely easy to play. Pair it with some lighter gauge strings and you have the ideal beginner package to get you a jump start on your music journey!

Best Blues Acoustic Guitar:
 Gretsch G9200 Roundneck Boxcar

Gretsch G9200 Roundneck Boxcar, Natural


  • Earthy, warm acoustic
  • Rich tones and high volume
  • Compact, easy-to-play design
  • Ideal for blues-based music genres
  • Light satin finish with a rich mahogany look
  • Outstanding quality and high value for the money


  • Not so playable
  • Woody rather than metallic sounds
  • Comes with only one endpin for the strap button

What Recent Buyers Report

Buyers have said this guitar offers high quality and value for your money. The playability is not ideal, but they lowered the bridge and the nut and enhanced the ease of play and made it faster. The look is rich, with a beautiful contrast to a rather simplistic design. The tones are ideal for earthy, warm acoustic work. 

Why it Stands Out to Us

This resonator is a good quality guitar that is best used for blues. It is highly affordable and made from mahogany (body and neck). This gives the sounds a "woody" touch to them. It is loud enough to allow you to cut through a mix and the hardware is good quality, maintaining tuning stability. 

Who Will Use This Most

This guitar is our best recommendation for blues players. It is highly capable of producing exquisite layers of rustic, marvelously rich sounds with a woody note to them. It is small-sized and very portable, which enhances comfort while playing. This guitar is best used with a pick for opening up the sounds!

Bottom Line 

Overall, whether you are a blues or bluegrass player, this instrument is a suitable, well-built, and highly emotive instrument. The low cost makes it a tough competitor for most of the acoustic guitars on the market – it is definitely worth checking out!

What Do I Need to Know Before Buying an Acoustic Guitar?

Here are some important considerations to keep in mind before purchasing a new acoustic guitar:

Define Your Budget

The first question you need to ask yourself before buying is how much you are willing to spend. An expensive guitar does not always equal a high-quality instrument, just like a cheap one does not always equal poor quality. 

There are reasonable, good-quality instruments in literally every price range. If you are a frequent gigger, a $300 guitar might not be suitable for you. However, you may have no use just yet for a $1,500 instrument if you are just starting out – go for basic, simple guitars to teach you the basics first. 

Determine Your Needs

Apart from guitars, you also need some accessories to go with it, such as picks, a strap, and maybe new strings. As a starter, don’t put much cash into accessories, even if a high-quality tuner might seem practical. Put the most money in your guitar, as a high-quality instrument will be of more use than a cheap one with top-notch strings and a tuner. 

Choosing the Best Guitar

Make sure you do your research. The tonewood, shape, size, and sound qualities are different from guitar to guitar. Determine what you’d like to have in your favorite guitar and check out our list – you will definitely find one for your needs!

How to Clean an Acoustic Guitar

Making your guitar squeaky clean should be a normal process you go through every now and then as a musician. A well-maintained instrument will last longer and maintain its qualities for a longer period of time. Why do you need to clean it often? All the oil and sweat from your fingers will impact your guitar, so here’s how to keep it clean and clear:

  1. Purchase a lint-free cloth 
  2. Use guitar polish
  3. Clean your fingerboard
  4. Clean the strings
  5. Use a guitar bag or case

One of the first steps is to purchase microfiber cloths for your guitar – they are the best fabrics to clean your guitar with. If you have a glossy (lacquered) body, use a guitar polish to clean it. However, make sure you skip this step if your guitar has a satin finish or is a vintage style!

Most guitars have ebony or rosewood fingerboards that are unsealed and unfinished. This makes them more likely to become dirty. Most guitarists use lemon oil or other oils, such as linseed, to clean the fingerboard. With a microfiber cloth, clean and moisturize the fingerboard with care, making sure to get between the frets. Do not use the same microfiber cloth you used for the polish. 


Overall, acoustic guitars are the most versatile type of guitar. They are great for any music genre and playing style, and are great for beginners and professionals alike. Therefore, we have presented you with the best acoustic guitars to help you with your new musical journey!

People Also Ask

Starting to play an acoustic guitar can result in quite a bit of confusion and misconceptions. Read the following FAQ section to find out more information about acoustic guitars, such as a short history of this amazing instrument, how to lower the action, how to attach a strap, how to restring an acoustic guitar, and much more!

Which Brand of Acoustic Guitar is Best for Beginners?

Although there are many brands and varieties, most starters choose a Fender to begin their journey. This reputable company is well-known for its comfortable, highly playable, and high-quality instruments. They have very beginner-friendly models that come in under $300. We highly recommend you have a look at the Fender CD-60S!

Who Invented the Acoustic Guitar?

There is no real inventor of the guitar, but one of the first acoustic guitars that resemble our models today was built by Antonio de Torres Jurado. He improved a design previously created by Jose Pages and Josef Benedid. The modern acoustic guitar started to take shape in the late 1700s, but there is no clear information on whether the first guitar appeared in France or Italy. 

When Was the Acoustic Guitar Invented?

String instruments can be seen in carvings from over 3,000 years ago. The first guitar-like instrument was called a lute, which had different shapes and sizes. Ancient people used a quill feather to play it. Then, in 711AD, the oud became more popular, with a rounded, pear-shaped body and small neck but without frets. The first fretted instruments similar to acoustic guitars appeared somewhere between the 15th and 16th centuries. 

How to Lower the Action on an Acoustic Guitar

In most cases, you can adjust the action in different ways, but one of the easiest and most common methods is to adjust the truss rod. This should be quite simple unless you have dropped your guitar or caused damage to the nut or neck. Once you have adjusted the truss rod, check the string height and adjust the action at the nut or at the bridge. 

How to Put a Strap on an Acoustic Guitar

Acoustic guitars are equipped with two strap pins located at the lower bout and at the base of the neck. In this case, all you need to do is take the pinhole of one end of the strap and place it over one pin. Do the same for the other end of the strap. Many guitars, however, have only one strap pin at the lower bout. Some straps have a lace, which is looped through the pinhole of one end of the strap. It is then tied around the headstock of the guitar by the nut, right under the strings. 

How to Restring an Acoustic Guitar

First, turn the tuner counter-clockwise in order to unwind and remove the string from the tuner once it is fully unwound. Then, remove the bridge pin and take the string out. Repeat these two steps on all the remaining strings. Place the new strings according to the proper holes in the bridge, put back the bridge pin, and pull the strings up gently. Pull the strings behind the tuner and wind them. Cut the excess string and tune the guitar once you have replaced all strings. 

When to Replace String on an Acoustic Guitar

Although some recommend changing the strings every 100 hours of play or so, it can be difficult because string life has many determinants. For instance, it is time to change the strings if they are discolored or rusty. Some players change their strings if the guitar starts to have tuning problems or sounds flat. A new set of strings will breathe life into your instrument!

How Old is the Oldest Existing Acoustic Guitar?

The oldest existing acoustic guitar is 400 years old. It was initially attributed to Belchior Diaz and many claim that he made the instrument around 1590. He was a Portuguese who created the oldest existing ten-string, five-course guitar with an ornate peghead. The regular frets were replaced by tied ligatures, similar to the lute.